Monday, April 23, 2012

Other Forms of Learning

Rational Learning

Knowledge is the outcome sought in this type of learning. Rational learning is intellectual in nature and involves the process of abstraction by which concepts are formed.

Motor Learning

The outcome sought in this type of learning is skill, which may be described as the adaptation of movement to stimuli resulting in speed and precision of performance.

Associational Learning

The outcome sought in this type of learning is the acquisition and retention of facts and information. This type of learning involves the development of associative patterns of learning by which ideas and experiences are retained, recalled and experienced so that one will serve as the stimulus for the revival and recall of other experiences.

Appreciation Learning 

The outcome sought in this type of learning is appreciation of aesthetic improvement. Appreciation involved both intellectual and emotional elements. It is a sensitive awareness to and perception of the importance or utility of information in its relation to other fields and in the development of attitudes and tastes.

Appreciational Learning 

This involves the process of acquiring attitudes, ideals, satisfactions, judgment and knowledge concerning values as well as the recognition of worth and importance that the learner gains from participating in the learning activities.

Latent Learning

This refers to some learning not visible immediately for it takes conscious effort to organize the material and draw synthesis of experiences. This may come later as it entails time for processing. Latent learning refers to any learning that is not demonstrated by behavior at the time of the learning. Learning goes on partly through automatic processes with little rational direction from the learner and in part, through processes where the learner perceives relationships and acts with knowledge.

Learning Curves

The course of learning proficiency can be plotted in learning curves. Learning curves refer to graphical illustration, which shows a change in the subject’s performance as an effect of practice. In learning anything of even moderate complexity, several repetitions are required. One cannot be expected to master a complex or elaborate task in a single try, no matter what the degree of motivation or value of the reward is. The clearest way to illustrate the effect of practice is to graph learning on successive trials. In learning to type, for example, we can do only a few words per minute at first. But with practice, greater speed is attained. A typical learning curve shows an upward course of improvement, but with marked up and down fluctuations (skewed curve) that are the result of chance conditions usually are caused by factors such as mood, health and motivation.

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